North-East India Helminth Parasite Information Database

Calicophoron shillongensis (Roy et Tandon Roy et Tandon) Back


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                                           Calicophoron shillongensis, Roy et Tandon 1995


Capra (hircus)




Shillong (Meghalaya)


Body conical, 7.23-10.39 mm long, 3.16-5.78 mm in greatest width, ratio of body width to body length 1:1.79-1:3.14. Acetabulum sub-terminal, 1.58-3.02 mm in external diameter; ratio to body length 1:3.44-1:6.29; of cotylophoron type as defined by Näsmark (1937) in median sagittal section; units of circular muscle on lateral sides as follows: d.e.c.m. 10-15; d.i.c.m. 27-34; v.e.c.m. 9-13; v.i.c.m. 23-28; m.e.c.m. 14-19. Pharynx 0.67-1.71 mm in length, 0.67-1.71 mm in greatest diameter; ratio to body length 1:6.30-1:10.79, to diameter of acetabulum 1:1.91-1:2.35; of calicophoron type as defined by Dinnik (1964) in median sagittal section. Oesophagus 0.36-0.76 mm in length; ratio to body length 1:12.36-1:15.50; wall smooth, its musculature moderate in thickness, no bulb or posterior sphincter. Caeca with few loose dorso-ventral bends, extending up to middle of acetabulum, their pointed ends terminating dorsally. Testes obliquely tandem or juxtaposed; anterior testis 1.13-2.26 mm in length, 1.58-2.48 mm in width; posterior testis 0.94-1.80 mm in length, 1.58-2.35 mm in width. Seminal vesicle coiled; pars musculosa, pars prostatica well developed. Ovary 0.27- 0.76 by 0.27-0.72 mm, post-testicular; Mehlis' gland close to ovary; Laurer's canal crossing excretory vesicle or duct, opening dorsally. Vitellaria in loose or small clusters, extending from level of oesophagus posteriorly up to posterior level of acetabulum, confluent dorso-medially in post-ovarian region. Eggs 0.09-0.158 by 0.058-0.087 mm. Excretory vesicle dorsal to acetabulum, opening on dorsal surface, anterior to opening of Laurer's canal. Genital pore ventral, at level of oesophageal bifurcation or behind it; ventral atrium deep, enormous, no ventral sphincter, genital papilla weakly developed, sphincter papillae weak; this new type of terminal genitalium is referred here as shillongensis type.


The present form belongs to subfamily Paramphistominae of the family Paramphistomidae because of the absence of a ventral pouch and the Laurer's canal crossing the excretary vesicle or duct. It is further assigned to the genus Calicophoron Näsmark, 1937 on the ground of it having a conical body, which is broader posteriorly than anteriorly, subterminal acetabulum of moderate size, pharynx without a pouch or diverticula and well -developed pars musculosa and pars prostatica, and in the absence of a genital sucker.

Eduardo (1983), in his revision of the genus Calicophoron, recognised only 12 species a valid and provided a key to these. The species are C. calicophorum (Fischoeder, 1901) Näsmark, 1937 (syn. Paramphistomum crassum Stiles et Goldberger, 1910; P. cauliorchis Stiles et Goldberger, 1910; P. ijimai Fukui, 1929; P. (cauliorchis) skrjabini Popova, 1937; P. erschovi Davydova, 1959; Calicophoron orientalis Mukherjee, 1966b; C. wuchengense Wang, 1979 and Cotylophoron skrjabini Mitskevich, 1958 (in part); C. bothriophoron* (Braun, 1892) Eduardo (1983; C. microbothium* (Fischoeder, 1901) Eduardo (1983); C. papillosum (Stiles et Goldberger, 1910) Näsmark, 1937 (syn.Calicophoron zhejiangense Wang, 1979); C. papilligerum*, (Stiles et Goldberger, 1910) Eduardo (1983); C. raja Näsmark, 1937; C. clavula (Näsmark, 1937) Eduardo, 1983; C. microbothrioides* (Price et McIntosh, 1944) Eduardo, 1983 (syn. Celonocotyle petrovi Davydova, 1961); C. sukari* (Dinik, 1954) Eduardo, 1983; C. phillerouxi* (Dinik, 1961) Eduardo, 1983 (syn. Paraphistomum vangrembergeni Van Strydonck, 1970; P. togolense Albaret et al., 1978); C. daubneyi* (Dinik, 1962) Eduardo, 1983: and C. sukumum* (Dinik, 1964) Eduardo, 1983.

*Species previously assinged to the genus Paraphistomum.

The present species can be differentiated from the known species of the genus by the cotylophoron type of acetabulum and a new type of terminal genitalium and also in having plate-like elevation bearing ciliated papillae around the oral opening and in the buccal cavity.

In having a true ventral atrium the present form comes close to C. papilligerum and C. bothriophoron and deviates from all the other known species of the genus. It can be further differentiated from the latter species in having a different type of terminal genitalium; the latter in the known species is of calicophoron type (C. calicophoron), raja type (C. raja), clavula type (C. clavula), papillogenitalis type (C. papillosum) and microbothium type (C. microbothrioides, C. phillerouxi, C.sukari, C. daubneyi and C. sukumum). The present species differs from C. papilligerum in the absence of papillae in the wall of ventral atrium and from C. bothriophoron in the absence of a ventral sphincter, and in having a weak genital papilla.

The present species also resembles C. calicophorum in the position of testes; however, the position of genital opening and the direction of caecal ends are the additional characters for differentiating the two species; in C. calicophoron the genital opening is post-bifurcal and the terminal ends of caeca are directed posteriorly. In having the dorsally directed caecal ends the present form can also be differetiated from C. microbothrium, C. papillosum, C. raja, C.sukari, C. daubneyi and C. sukumum.

The terminal genitalium of the present species cannot be assigned to any of the 'types' hitherto described by Näsmark, (1937) or by Eduardo (1982) and is considered here as a new type, the shilongensis type.

The above discussed differences of the present form from the known species of Calicophoron merit its description as a new species under the genus.

Specific diagnosis

Acetabulum of cotylophoron type; caecal ends terminating dorsally; terminal genitalium of shillongensis type (new type); plate-like elevations bearing cilialted papillae present around oral opening and in buccal cavity.

Helminthological collections record


Specimen Type

Holotype and one series of sagittal sections (No. IV/ZSI/ERS 306) in Zoological Survey of India (Eas


Näsmark, K. E. (1937) Revision of the trematode family Paramphistomidae. Zoologiska Bidrag fran Uppsala. 16:pp 301-565.

Eduardo ,S. L. (1983). The taxonomy of the family Paramphistomidae Fischoeder, 1901 with special reference to the morphology of species occurring ruminants. III. Revision of the genus Calicophoron N?â?ñsmark, 1937. Systematic Parasitology. 5:pp 25-79.

Fischeoder ,F. (1901). Die Paramphistomiden der Säugethiere. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 24:pp 367- 375.

Stiles, C. W. and Goldberger, J. (1910). A study of Watsonius (n.g.) watsoni of man and of allied species of mammalian trematode worms of the superfamily Paramphistomidea. Bulletin of the Hygienic Laboratory , Public Health and Marine- Hospital Service of the United States. No.60, pp 259.

Fukui, T. (1929). Studies on Japanese amphistomatous parasites with revision of the group. Japanese Journal of Zoology, Transactions and Abstracts. 2:pp  219-351

Popova, K.A. (1937). ( A new trematode species Paramphistomomum (cauliorchis) skrjabini from the rumen of cattle and buffaloes. Raboty po Gel'mintologii, Sbornik, Posviashchennyi Tridsatiletiju Nauchno-Pedagogicheskoi i obshchestvennoi Dejatel'nosti Zasluzhennogo Dejatelia Nauki Akademika Konstantina Ivanovicha Skryabina i Piatnadtsatiletiju Vsesojuznogo Instituta Gel'mintologii. Moskva, Schulz, R.E.S. & Gnyedina, M.P (editors), pp.500-504. ( In Russian).

Davydova, I.V. (1959)  ( On the demonstration of Calicophoroniasis in cattle and sheep in the USSR.) Helminthologia, 1, 31-36 ( In Russian)

Mukherjee, R. P. (1966b). On some amphistomes of India. Indian Journal of Helminthology. 28(2):pp  94-103.

Wang, X. (1979). (systematic studies on amphistomatous trematodes from China. II. Paramphistomatidae : Paramphistomatidae and Gastrothylacinae, with notes on some new species). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 4, 327-338. ( In Chinese)

Mitskevich, V.Y. (1958). (Cotylophoron skrjabini nov. sp. from Rangifer tarandi). Papers on Helminthology presented to Academecian K.I. Skrjabin on his 80th birthday, Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Akademii Nauk SSSR, 231-235 ( In Russian)

Braun, M.(1892).  Ein neues Distomum aus Porphyrio. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 22,1-4

Price, E.W. and MacIntosh, A. 1944. Paramphistomes of North American domestic rumminants. Journal of Parasitology 30, ( Supplement), 9.

Davydova, I.V. (1961).  ( A new trematode - Ceylonocotyle petrovi sp.nov.(Paramphistomidae) from a deer (Cervus nippon) in the Far-East of the USSR Littoral Region) Helminthologia, 3, 67-72( In Russian))

Dinik, J.A (1954). Paramphistomum sukari n. sp. from Kenya cattle and its intermediate host. Parasitology, 44: 414-421.

Dinik, J.A (1961). Paramphistomum phillerrouxi sp. nov. (Trematode: Paramphistomatidae) and its development in Bulinus forskalii. Journal of Helminthology, 35: 69-90.

Van Strydonck, D.(1970). Contribution à l'etude de l'anatomie de la morphologie et de la systématique des Paramphistomidae Africains ( Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). Annales du Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Serie in -8°, Sciences zoologigues, 183,56 pp.

(Albaret et al., 1978) Albaret, J.L., Bayssade-Dufour, C., Guilhan, J., Kulo, S.D. and Picot, H.(1978). Cycle biologigue de Paramphistomum togolense n.sp. ( Trematoda: Paramphistomidae). Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 53, 495-510.

Dinik, J.A (1962). Paramphistomum daubneyi sp. nov. from cattle and its snail hosts in the Kenya highland. Parasitology, 52: 143-151.

Dinik, J.A (1964). Paramphistomum sukumum sp. nov. and other stomach-flukes from cattle in the Sukumaland area of the lake region, Tanganyika. Parasitology, 54 : 201-209.