Lytocestidae Wardle et McLeod, 1952 »
Lytocestinae Satpute et Agarwal, 1980 »
Lytocestus Cohn, 1908 »
Lytocestus indicus, Moghe 1931
(Caryophyllaeus indicus Moghe, 1925)
Body broad and flat, with traces of external segmentation,10.56-19.8 mm in length, 1.45-3.6 mm in maximum breadth at level of cirrus sac; body proper divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla by two layers of longitudinal muscles. Scolex unarmed, short and bluntly rounded, markedly narrower than the body and provided with longitudinal furrows in some specimens.
Neck very short and indistinct. Testes numerous, 212-438 in number, occupying the medullary region of the body, ovoid in shape, larger than vitelline follicles and extending from the base of the neck to the cirrus sac region posteriorly; cirrus sac prominent, opening separately before the utero-vaginal pore. Ovary bilobed, wing- like in shape, follicular, the two lobes of ovary joined to each other by an ovarian isthmus posteriorly; Mehlis' gland well developed, located behind ovarian isthmus; vagina distinct, joining the terminal end of the uterus to open unitedly to the exterior at the utero-vaginal pore. Vitelline follicles corticular, in a ring around the testes, no post-ovarian vitelline follicles present. Excretory pore terminal. Eggs oval in shape, smooth, embryonated and operculated, 0.06-0.08 x 0.02-0.03 mm.
The species, L. indicus, was first described by Moghe (1925) as Caryophyllaeus
indicus from the common Indian siluroid, Clarias batrachus.
Woodland (1926) raised a doubt regarding the presence of post-ovarian
vitelline follicles and maintained that they were in reality ovarian follicles, suggesting thereby shifting of the species from
Caryophyllaeus to Lytocestus. Moghe (1931) redescribed the species in view of
Woodland's (1926) remarks and placed
it under the genus Lytocestus.
Of all the specimens of L. indicus collected during the present investigation, a single specimen showed a longitudinal division of the worm immediately posterior to the short neck into two separate parts which reunited a little anterior to the cirrus sac. Such anomalies amongst caryophyllids are rare (Janiszewska, 1954) but Simha and Rasheed (1981) reported an anomaly in L. indicus, in which the anterior end of the worm was duplicated for about one-fourth of the body length into two complete bothria along with the testes and vitellaria. Amongst other caryophyllidean anomalies, Archigetes brachyurus was reported to possess post-ovarian vitellaria by Mrazek (1908). Absence of post-ovarian vitellaria in Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Glaridacris laruei was observed by Janiszewska (1954) and Mackiewicz (1965), respectively.
Similarly, Mackiewicz (1963) reported the presence of post-ovarian vitellaria in Monobothrium hunteri. Fusion of posterior lobes of ovary in G. laruei, isolated vitelline follicles in the neck of G. catasomi and shortened posterior ovarian lobes in Isoglaridacris hexacotyle were reported by Mackiewicz, (1965,1968). Duplication of reproductive system was recorded by Mackiewicz (1978) in the genus Glaridacris and Penarchigetes. Jones and Mackiewicz (1969) observed the testes of Atractolytocestus huronensis to be posterior to the ovary.
There are reports of anomalies occurring in polyzoic cestodes also. Therefore, Braun (1900), on summarizing the recorded cases of anomalies in polyzoic cestodes, attributed forking of the strobila to metabolic disturbance or fenestration in the region of proliferation. Chandler (1930) recorded an abnormal Taenia pisiformis with a normal scolex but with two chains of strobila. Clapham (1939) also reported duplication of the reproductive system along with the gonopores in Taenia pisiformis and Diphyllidium caninum.
The anomaly observed in the form under present investigation, can be attributed to a possible mechanical injury to the tegument which could have triggered secondary growth. This seems probable as caryophyllids are known to have a diffuse type of growth (Nyebelin, 1922) and are regarded monozootic (Wardle et.al,1974).
The rare occurrence of anomalies amongst the caryophyllids, however, is indicative of a high degree of genetic stability in the group (Mackiewicz,1972).
NEHU/Z - CF/7
Moghe, M. A. (1925). Caryphylleus indicus n. sp. (Trematoda) from the catfish Clarias batrachus (BI.). Parasitology. 17:pp 232-235.
Woodland, W. N. F. (1926) On the genera and possible affinities of the Caryophyllaeidae: A reply to Drs. O. Fuhrmann and J.G. Baer. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.pp 49-69.
Moghe, M.A. (1931). A supplementary description of Lytocestus indicus Moghe (syn. Caryphyllaeus indicus, Moghe, 1925, Cestoda). Parasitology. 23:pp 84-87.
Janiszewska, J. (1954). Caryophyllaeidae europejeskie ze szcsegolnym uwzglednieniem Polski. Travaux de la Societte des Sciences et des Letres de Wrocklaw Seria B. Nr. (66), pp 73.
Simha, S. S. and Rasheed, U. (1981). An anomaly in caryophyllid cestode, Lytocestus indicus Moghe, 1931. Indian Journal of Parasitology. 5:pp 197-198.
Mrazek, A. (1908). Ueber einer neue Art der Gattüng Archigetes. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde und Infectionskrankheiten, Erste Abteilüng, Originale. 46: pp 719-723.
Mackiewicz, J. S.(1965). Isoglaridacris bulbocirrus gen. et. sp. n. (Cestoidea: Caryophyllaeidae) from Catastomus commersoni in North America. Journal of Parasitology. 51:pp 554-564.
Mackiewicz .J.S. (1963). Monobothrium hunteri sp. n (Cestoidea: Caryophyllaeidae) from Catastomus commersoni (Lacepede) (Pisces: Catastomidae) in North America. Journal of Parasitology. 49:pp 723-730.
Mackiewicz, J. S.(1968). Isoglaridacris hexacotyle comb.n(Cestoideia,Caryophyllidea) from catastomid fishes in Southwestern North America. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington.35:pp 193-196.
Jones, A. W. and Mackiewicz, J.S. (1969) Naturally occuring triploidy and parthenogenesis in Atractolytocestus hurnensis Anthony (Cestoidea: Caryophyllidea) from Cyprinus carpio L. in North America. Journal of Parasitology. 55:pp 1105-1118.
Braun, M. (1900) Cestodes in Bronn's Klassen aund Ordungen des tierreichs V.
Chandler, A. C. (1930) Some polyradiate specimens of Taenia pisiformis with a completely double strobila. Transactions American Microscopical Society. 1:pp 168-171.
Clapham, P.A. (1939) Some polyradiate specimens of Taenia pisiformis and Diphyllidium caninum with a bibliography of the abnormalities occurring among cestodes. Journal of Helminthology. 17:pp 163-176.
Nyebelin, O. (1922). Anatomish systematische studien uber Pseudophyllidean. Goteborgs kungl Vetenskaps-och Vitterhets-Samhalles Handlings, Fjarde folijde. 26:pp 228.
Wardle, R., McLeod, J. and Radinovsky, S. (1974). Advances in the zoology of tapeworms, 1950-1970. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minnesota, pp 247
Mackiewicz, J. S. (1972). Caryophyllidea (Cestoidea): a review. Experimental Parasitology.31:pp 417-512.