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Ascaridia galli (Schrank 1788), Freeborn 1923
(Ascaris galli Schrank, 1788; A. gallopavonis Gmelin, 1790; A. hamia Lane, 1914)
Gallus (gallus domesticus)
Shillong (Meghalaya), Mairang (Meghalaya), Nongstoin (Meghalaya), Jowai (Meghalaya)
Worms long, semi-transparent, with oral opening at anterior end. Cuticle striated, intervals between cuticular striations well marked; lateral alae in cervical region feebly developed, extremely narrow. Sides of anterior end of body bearing pair of distinct cervical papillae. Mouth surrounded by three prominent lips, one dorsa1, two 1atera1; each lip divided into three distinct lobes, one median, two 1atera1; inner surface of median lobe of each 1atera1 lip possessing single dentigerous ridge; dorsa1 lip broader than 1atera1 lip, provided with pair of distinct 1arge lozenge-shaped papil1ae in its center in addition to a 1arge circu1ar papilla. Oesophagus simple, terminating by swelling, without valve.
Slightly smaller, more slender than female, 50-74 mm in length , 0.5-0.64 mm in maximum width. Posterior end obliquely truncated, possessing narrow bursal membrane on each side and concavity on ventral surface of body between anus and tip of tail. Prominent pre-anal sucker present on ventral side of tail, surrounded by distinct chitinous rim anus usually appearing as transverse slit; numerous small tubercle-like structure scattered irregularly around anus, extending towards lateral sides. Caudal papillae ten pairs, arranged in distinct groups, i.e., pre-anal, anal, post-anal and sub-terminal on ventral surface of caudal end; pre-anals three pairs â€“first pair anterior to pre-anal sucker, second at level of pre-anal sucker and close to the first pair; sub-terminals three pairs, first smallest of all anal pairs, lying close to second pair, second and third pairs comparatively more prominent surrounded by small cuticular raised structures giving them rosette-like appearance, lying laterally and ventrally respectively, on extreme tail region body. Spicules well developed, equal, covered in spicular sheath, protruding out at anal opening.
Larger, stouter and vigorous than male, 68-110 mm in length , 0.65-0.94 mm in maximum width. Tail tapers pointing posteriorly, possessing pair of papillae just near to its tip. Anus in front of posterior end of body. Vulva near middle of body more prominent . Vagina muscular, proceeding anteriorly; uteri opposed. Eggs oval, smooth, thick shelled, 0.05-0.08 x 0.03-0.05 mm.Â
This species has been recorded from fowl and other birds from almost all parts of the country. Schrank (1788) described ascarids of poultry as a new species, Ascaris galli. Later Railliet and Henry (1912) referred this species as Ascaridia lineata (Schneider, 1866). Freeborn (1923) substituted Ascaridia galli (Shrank,1788) for Ascaris perspiculum (Rudolphi, 1803). Bhalerao (1934) separated A. lineata from A. galli on the basis of the number of dentigerous ridges. On account of longer spicules, the larger pre-anal sucker and the presence of lateral alae in A. galli, Neveu-Lemaire (1936) regarded A. lineata as distinct species from A. galli, an opinion also held by Monning (1947) and Kung (1949) and later workers.
Except for some minor variations such as only two dentigerous ridges on the median lobes of lateral lips as against three as described by Bhalerao (1934), the present observations are in conformity with the earlier descriptions.
Schrank, F. P. (1788). Verzeichnisse der bisher hilänglich bekannten Eingeweidewürmer, nebst einer Abhondlung über ihre Anverwandtschaften. München. pp 116.
Schneider, A. F. (1866). Monographic der Nematoden. Berlin. pp 357.
Freeborn, S. B. (1923) Poultry round worms investigations. Report of the California University Agriculture Experimentation Station. pp 129-130.
Rudolphi, C. A. (1803). New Beobachtungen über die Eingeweidewürmer. Archivfür Zoologie ünd Zootomic. 3:pp 1-32.
Bhalerao, G. D. (1934) Helminth Parasites of Domesticated Animals in India. Science Monograph, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (I.C.A.R) , New Delhi. pp.143-320.
Neveu- Lemaire, M. (1936). Traite d'helminthologie, medicale et Veterinaire. pp 1514.
Monning, H. O. (1947). Veterinary Helminthology and Entomology, Ailliere, Tindall & Co., London. pp 274.
Kung, C.C. (1949) Notes on some avian species of Ascaridia. Journal of Helminthology.23: 95-106.